Stoned, naked, armed and dangerous: more disturbing images from an Israeli soldier’s Instagram

Golani Brigade soldier Osher Maman, who came from a troubled youth in Florida, posts photos of himself breaking Israeli military law and playing with weapons in irresponsible ways. Source

As Mor Ostrovski’s now infamous Instagram image of a Palestinian child in the crosshairs of a sniper rifle generated disgust around the world, the Israeli army claimed that the photograph was “a severe incident which doesn’t accord with the IDF’s spirit and values.”

It is understandable that an occupation army that markets itself as the “most moral army in the world” would attempt such damage control.

Those who follow matters closely know that the photograph was an apt symbol for the Israeli army’s contempt for the lives of Palestinian children, as well as for the total impunity soldiers accused of crimes against Palestinian civilians enjoy. Even in terms of “misuse” of social media, it was no isolated incident.

Israeli soldiers’ use of social media has given a unique insight into an “army” that functions more like a rabble – with soldiers misusing weapons, breaking laws, and expressing violent and extreme views and posting images of themselves doing it online.

From troubled Florida youth to the Israeli army

Gun play Source

A case in point is Osher Maman, another 20-year-old Israeli soldier currently enlisted in the “elite” Golani Brigade.

Maman’s Instagram account currently includes 549 images which show, among other things, images of him mishandling weapons and breaking military laws. The earliest date from April 2012 and the most recent from today. An illustrative selection – with tags where he included them – are used throughout this post. Maman also expresses deeply racist and even genocidal views towards Palestinians and Arabs. (Note: following publication of this article, Maman has deleted his various social media accounts).

A 21 January 2012 tweet from Osher Maman’s now deleted Twitter account.

Maman, who grew up in Naples, Florida after his family left Israel a decade ago, made the news in 2006 when as a 14-year-old he brought a BB gun given to him by his parents to school and used it to threaten two girls.

Maman also has an adult criminal history with records of arrests in February 2011 and in May 2011 for “trespassing on school grounds.”


Osher Maman’s Facebook page, which features many of the same images that can be seen on his Instagram account but also goes back earlier, identifies him as a former student of Barron Collier High School in Naples, Florida, and uses the nickname “Eazybaby” which resembles the name of his Instagram account eazybaby310.

An Osher Maman was a member of the graduating high school class of 2010 according to the Naples Daily News on 5 June 2010.


Maman’s Facebook bio says: “From israel to Miami to the I.D.F Kik: eazybaby310 An active assassin/hitman” and he identifies himself as a member of Barak, the 12th Battalion of the supposedly “elite” Golani brigade. This is corroborated by many images he has posted of weapons, uniforms and other military paraphernalia bearing the insignia of this battalion.

Maman wrote a message on Facebook on 13 August 2011:

im leaving to the israeli army this monday, just wanted to say.. fuck the police, fuck barron collier high school and all the staff, fuck all the judges, fuck all you little hater faggots that blow up my fb and phone talking shit, fuck the bitches that cheated on me, fuck the virus i just got on my computer and whoever created it, fuck you fuck you fuck you, whos next…

One year later, Maman celebrated the anniversary of his move in another Facebook status:

So one year ago i moved here to join the army… Im not gonna make up some bullshit glorious story to break your heart… I just did it to beat up terrorists and shit… Happy one year anniversary Mmmmmffffffckasss!!!


Not exactly a boy scout

An image he posted of its insignia indicates that Maman was recruited directly from the United States via “Garin Tzabar” a program that recruits Jews and Israelis from overseas into the army. Maman identifies himself as a Garin Tzabar member on his Google Plus account.

A comment made on a website dedicated to Garin Tzabar, from the Facebook account of Maman’s mother, Batya Sabag, a social media consultant in Naples, Florida, also identifies her son as a graduate of the program.

One of the requirements of the Garin Tzabar program is a “Certificate of Good Conduct (proof of no prior criminal record).”

This military recruitment program for the Israeli occupation army is run by the Israel Scouts.

According to an image posted by Maman, on 5 April 2012 his military service had begun 138 days previously (which would be November 2011) and will end on 19 November 2014.

A montage posted by Osher Mamam features a blindfolded and bound Palestinian prisoner, weapons, and tags that reveal fantasies of violence. Source

Misuse of weapons

Obscene Source

When Maman was arrested and charged in the BB gun incident – classified by authorities as a weapon, not a toy, his father, Zion Maman, told media that “the culture in Israel has a more relaxed view about toy guns.”

Basic rule of gun safety: don’t put your finger on the trigger unless you intend to shoot. Source

That relaxed view extends to real guns, mortars, grenades and all sorts of other heavy weapons that Osher Maman is seen handling, sometimes naked, and using as toys and props in disturbing images he posted online.

These images suggest that the Israeli army exercises little control or discipline over weapons.

Star of David formed with guns. Source

This gun appears to be loaded and it’s definitely not a toy. Source

Does the Israeli army just leave mortar shells lying around for use as Instagram props? This one is a dummy shell used for training. Source

More weapons for Osher Maman to play with. Source

Playing God? Note the caption Osher Maman has attached to this image of what might be the controller of remote weapon system. Source





Maman posts images of himself breaking military law

A criminal offense under Israeli military law, Golani brigade soldier Osher Maman smokes marijuana in his uniform. Source

Images posted on Maman’s Instagram account show him smoking marijuana in uniform and on duty, in direct contravention of Israeli army order “33.011 - Use of Drugs - procedures for report, detention, and initiating a military police investigation.”

Osher Maman with a joint while on duty. Source

Military order 33.011 states that the use of drugs, including hashish, “constitutes a criminal offense and harms the army, so this order does not leave room for the commanders’ discretion.” It adds that, “All soldiers of the Israel Defense Forces are prohibited from possessing drugs, taking them, or trading in them.”

Osher Maman shows off his stash. Possession is a criminal offense under army law. Source

What does it mean that the Israeli army recruits a soldier, with a dubious history, who is stupid enough to post images of himself committing more criminal offenses?

Is this a man who should be handling – playing with – lethal weapons in any circumstances? Or does it mean that this Most Moral Army so lacks discipline that soldiers like Maman can break the law without fear of consequences?

A lust for violence and genocidal hatred of Arabs

Osher Maman freely expresses his deep, even genocidal hatred of Palestinians and his desire to see them oppressed and killed. Responding to a comment on one of his images, for example, Maman told the commenter

Lmao for all I care you can comment all my pictures, you’re still a fucking Arab pile of shit, you even smell like it. You’re never going to win over israel (the chosen people) bc you’re a bunch of slaves, shit I probably am the slave master of some Arab who’s related to you… An you all will stay trapped in gaza and every little shittt village that you Palestinians have inside of israel. And you will continue to go to our jails and to have your houses broken in to. Basically your life will be shit until you all die, so go ahead and have fun commenting on my pictures of that’s going to make your death a little better…

Note the horrifying tags Israeli soldier Osher Maman, who took a BB gun to school as a teen and used it to threaten two girls, has attached to this image. Source

In addition to the endless stream of photos of himself and his buddies posing with guns, Maman shares images and slogans glorifying violence, especially, of course, against Palestinians.

Over a map of Gaza, the Hebrew slogan says “Soon to be a giant theme park.” Source


Osher Maman is not a “rotten apple.” He, along with Mor Ostrovski – the author of the infamous photo of the boy in the crosshairs – is another symbol of the occupation army under whose arbitrary and dictatorial rule Palestinians have been forced to live for decades.

It is soldiers just like these who whine to the Israeli media that they can’t be more brutal and violent against Palestinians because cameras are watching them.

It is soldiers just like these who are responsible, though never punished or held to account, for the killings of Palestinian children like Samir Awad, Salih al-Amarin and Muhammad al-Salaymeh, young men like Mustafa Tamimi and Rushdi Tamimi and young women like Lubna Hanash among so many thousands more.

With thanks to Benjamin Doherty for research and to Dena Shunra for research, translation and analysis.


Update, 20 February: Israeli army “reprimands” soldier over photos, slurs revealed by The Electronic Intifada

The Associated Press reports this development since The Electronic Intifada published the photos above by Israeli soldier Osher Maman:

Israel’s military says it has reprimanded a soldier who posted photos of himself naked — with a rifle concealing his genitals — and making derogatory comments about Arabs on social media sites. Capt. Eytan Buchman, a military spokesman, described the incident as “severe” and said Wednesday that the soldier’s conduct is still being investigated.

The soldier published the material on his Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. The images were then published on “Electronic Intifada,” a pro-Palestinian website. It quoted the soldier’s Facebook status as saying he just joined the army “to beat up terrorists.”

It was the latest in a string of incidents in which soldiers have posted inappropriate material online.

Palestinians say it reflects widespread contempt that Israeli soldiers have for them.

My response: The predictable reaction of the Israeli army is to suggest that every such incident is an isolated incident that violates its “ethics” or “values.” The Electronic Intifada’s reporting has shown that such images and violent statements by Israeli soldiers actually fit into a much broader pattern.

It is important to emphasize that while the pictures we’ve seen recently on Instagram are disturbing, they are an indicator of a much more troubling reality: an atmosphere and attitude where life, Palestinian life, is cheap. If only this were restricted to Instagram, it would not be such a problem.

It is the fact that this attitude translates into routine killings of Palestinians, especially children, as noted in the post above, and there are no credible investigations.

In this context, public relations responses from the Israeli army that this or that soldier has been “disciplined” or “reprimanded” for a social media transgression should fool no one. The real problem is a culture of violence and hatred that is an inherent feature of military and colonial rule over a subject people.




كتب المفكر اليهودي أحاد هاعام Ahad Ha’am 1856-1927 يقول: «إن المستوطنين اليهود الجدد في فلسطين كانوا عبيدًا في التيه، وفجأة وجدوا أنفسهم وسط حرية بلا حدود، بل وسط حرية لا رادع لها. وقد أحدث هذا التحول المفاجئ في نفوسهم ميلًا إلى الاستبداد كما هي الحال حين يصبح العبد سيدًا. وهم يعاملون العرب بكثير من العداء والشراسة، ويمتهنون حقوقهم بصورة فجة وغير مقبولة، ثم يوجهون لهم الإهانات دون مبرر كاف، ويفاخرون بما يفعلون. يتصرفون وكأن العرب كلهم همج متوحشون يعيشون كالحيوانات دون فهم لحقيقة ما يجري حولهم»ا


In his own country a guy like this might shoot a dozen peolple in a school or on a campus. Illegally. In the Israel army he is apparently allowed such misbehaviour. Legally.
Sick, really.


lol before u comment remember that it is a 20 year old kid....
he shoot photos with guns... so what?!
he posts satirical photos about what?! he can have his own doesnt mean he can do it...
grow up, thats not "the face of IDF"


I absolutely agree with the analisis exposed in the text, and I just wanted to congratulate your research work, which is very complete and well supported.
About these young boys... have no words, just the serpent's egg, as Bergmann titled his film.


IDF reeks hate and racism. What you expect from people who been brainwashed and wear uniform pretending to be civilized and protecting peace. There are no difference between terrorist groups and IDF except the latter got US gov protection


So proud to hail from the same Jerusalem village as so many great Palestinians, including Ali Abunimah. Keep up the wonderful work. With your head held up high, you are showing the world who we are and what we have had to deal with on a daily basis as Palestinians.




80% of them is like this idiot!!!Hope they all root in hell.


This criminal idiot does not deserve to wear the IDF uniforms but rather the prison uniforms for a long time.


While I do not share most of the views on this website, I felt a strong urge to comment, based on my own experience.

I live in Israel, I served (to be completely accurate, was forced to serve) in the IDF during the second Intifada and during those years I've seen more than I ever wished for. In short, the IDF is a joke. It basically a kindergarten for mostly spoiled brats, that successfully reflect the true face of the Israeli society - brainwashed, intolerant, militant and rotten to the core. This, of course, is an ugly generalization, but it is closer to the truth than anything being spewed out on the TV and out of the papers.

By now, basically any Israeli had already labeled me "traitor" or maybe the "enemy". This is a direct result of the brainwashing - hate anything that has an even remotely opposite opinion. But, let me get back on the subject: the IDF is, at best, amateurish. I do believe that about 10%-15% of it consists of true professionally trained warriors with an iron set of moral values, but sadly, that is just too low. The rest is made up of anyone that the state of Israel could enforce their heavy arm and the anachronistic law on. And so, you get 18-22 immature idiots being handed weapons and a responsibility for human life. That is definitely not the age to bear weapons at, while being touted with the omnipresent age-old slogans in the vein of 'Israel must be protected'.

And how exactly would some good firm values be put into these kids, if huge chunks of the state's budget are eaten by the military and by the crazy settlements program? What is left for education, environment or infrastructure?

All we, the citizens, get all day long is waves of fear- and war-mongering, led by those crazy ex-IDF officers that now populate the Knesset. It is so, so sad to me that many just can't identify the truth for what it is due to being brainwashed since they were born. I could go on and on - but comment limit is up, so feel free to ask me anything.


This individual is pretty typical of the IOF 'veterans' we have in Australia. I meet quite a few of these IOF 'veterans' through the Australian veterans groups, and they all make me shudder. If my soldiers behaved as depicted, I would have immediately locked them up. The charges would follow afterwards, once people were safe from harm from such criminal acts. The pictures, alone, are sufficient evidence to convict, no investigation is required.


finished my service 10 years ago more or less.. Been in alot of conflicts btw the population ( arabs ) and the other population (jews) but never met some1 like this guy.. So to take one shmok and say that the entire army is like this- not true..


This article utterly distorts the truth of the matter.
Firstly, the article attempts to create an image of the most disreputable soldier; one that can be generalised for the whole Israeli army. To form a tenuous link between a boy threatening two girls with a bb gun with the supposed ruthless bloodshed on the Isaeli soldiers is quite frankly pathetic. How can you say that they have any correlation whatsoever, disregarding the fact that it may not be even true? People make mistakes in their lives, they do acts they later regret but that is simply part of being human. Is it the case that it is only those who are linked with the IDF that make these mistakes? Of course not. I do not even need to give examples for you to realise that this particular attempt of yours to ridicule and condemn the soldier is simply flawed.
You begin to cover some territory that if I were you would go nowhere near: morality. Which is the country in the whole of the Middle East that promotes and enforces a fair trial? Israel. Is it not the case that so-called extremist Islam encourages the stoning of women for adultery, fellow man for being homosexual and blowing yourself up in the name of G-d? And you said that the IDF was dehumanizing Palestinian children... It's staggering how that thought can even enter one's mind. Israel is an ethnically inegrated country. A proportion of the Knesset (the Israeli government) is made of of Palestinians and Arabs. A Palestinian wanting to enter Israel from one of the surrounding countries is let in without fuss. But, to be an Israeli or to have an Israeli stamp on your passport, suddenly you're prohibited access to these Arab countries. Yes, very just indeed Mr Abunimah.
The article, written so eloquently with its use of vulgar and condescending languuage, is infected with a certain narrow-mindedness that truly brings down society. To believe this narrative above is to not realise how staged all this is. I am simply left to commend your imagination.


I esp. liked the sick joke about Israel "fair trials". It means NO trials for Palestinians, but jail without end, or "military" trials for the victims of colonialism. Or just murder ("targeted" one, a nice wording)

Fortunately, this hasbarist is not too bright to understand how it sounds.


"Anonymous", where on earth do you live? Do you know any Palestinians? Do you watch any films about the conflict? Do you read human rights briefings? Do you not know about 'Breaking the Silence', which now has collected more than 800 testimonies by Israeli soldiers? Some of these can be seen on youtube along with literally thousands of interviews and images recorded on mobile phones, which demonstrate the most brutal behaviour of IDF soldiers. Are you aware of the way thousands of non-Jews are treated at Ben-Gurion or at checkpoints every month, nothing as deliberately insulting and cruel as the way Palestinians are treated by soldiers at checkpoints, but I know people, some of them professionals, who would never go back for just that reason.
Please don't start me on the morality of Israel. I could give you a thousand examples of immorality, beginning with occupation, without much effort and back them all up with data. And all this stoning women and homosexuals...the tired old generalizations about Islam. It is not pit for pat to mention you have Moshe Katsav, former Israeli President, jailed for rape and wasn't it Miss Israel who was abducted, raped and knifed by an Israeli tour operator? America, which poses as a Christian country, is literally flooded with cases of rapists and abusers of women and children, and as for haters of wasn't so very long ago that this was pretty universal and it remains a problem for many Christians and Jews.
Israel an "ethnically integrated country"! - Palestinians integrated as second-class citizens, you mean. As for their representation in the Knesset, there are a hundred stories of discrimination there.
"A Palestinian wanting to enter Israel from one of the surrounding countries is let in without fuss" - the majority are not allowed to enter Israel, travel anywhere, nor use Ben-Gurion!
While Mr Abunimah is very particular about fact-checking, your presentation of falsehoods is staggering.


First of all my sympathies go to all civilians that have to live in areas of conflict around the globe. I do have Palestinian friends and colleagues.

But from the perspective as an historian, I do have the impression that IDF are showing restraint, and actually tries to minimize casualties in conflict, something that Hamas and Hezbollah don't do, or are interested in.

A totalitarian regime would react much more severe against an uprising or intifada, like we see in Syria now.
When the poles had their uprising or intifada in 1944 against their occupants, the Nazi-Germany let loose their dogs of war on a unprecedented scale. in the aftermath of the bloody struggle and destruction of Warsaw, it is estimated that half (note half), of the population was either dead, wounded or sent to concentration camp. more than 80% of the city center was obliterated. the events of the Warsaw uprising is well documented and are counted among the worst war crime Germany did commit in the war.

I have no question tha living on Gaza and the west-bank are difficult at best. But that Israel are showing restraint and don't wish for genocide is clear. I wonder if that would be the case if the Israel did not have an army, would their arab neighbors show as much restrain? luckily this is a hypothetical question, that has a uncomfortable ring to it.

I do wish for peace in the middle-east, and a two-state solution for Palestina, but I'm not sure this page is helping the process, I am uncertain of the agenda. But one thing is sure: fomenting hate as as news in disguise do not help the peace process. on the contrary it does create distance and fuel future conflicts.

"the lack of will to coexist, will in the end collapse the house of uncompromising societies". -from why Societies collapse


Does an historian not need more than an impression? It is all very well to express feelings and ideas, but to profess vague impressions on a subject is rather difficult to take seriously.
"But that Israel are showing restraint and don't wish for genocide is clear." How is that clear? You mean, as far as you know.
We are not talking about one troubled or nasty boy here, but serial, brutal, devastating abuse of an oppressed population who are at the mercy of the occupying force. It should be taken extremely seriously that there are innumerable soldiers like that out there, whether in the IDF or the US army, harming innocents and creating enemies, while prattling about their own 'security'.
Perhaps a good deal more research and historical fact-finding is needed.


First rule of all historians is to do research, for instance if writing a book about the Gaza conflict.

but I'm not writing a book or a treatise about the conflict in the middle-east, I am critizing the intention of this web-page, and it's agenda.

And the best evidence that Israel is not committing genocide and show restraint in military operation, is the fact that Arab population in Palestine is not decreasing, as opposed to the Warzaw uprising in 1944 when half HALF the population was either exterminated or driven off the ground.nor do they commit weapons of mass destruction (such as chemicals or bio-engineered weapons) to target their enemies. So if Israel and IDF really wants a genocide they do a poorly job.

That said, I do believe that people in the region are living in a very difficult situation, particularly the Palestinian arabs that suffers most from the conflict, no doubt there. lack of leadership or a national orientation also foment a feeling of hopelessness, less than half of the Palestinians put any trust in their elected leaders of HAMAS.

A few years back I did some research about the conflict, going all the way back to the ottoman empire. And found that both sides (or even more sides) buried the truths. discerning truths and facts from progaganda was difficult. finding neutral facts as opposed to biased facts was an immense task.

No doubt that IDF has it's black sheep. but claiming that all the Israel's military defence is out for arab blood, has no substance in a historic frame. is IDF guilty in some crimes against humanity or can be deemed as crime against humanity, yes. but labeling the entire IDF as criminals has no merit in any international court. This of course is my opinion, until new evidence will convince me to think otherwise.

And again I do question the agenda of this site, does this really help the peace process?


It's so funny how people are easily shocked about this here in The States. These pics are nothing compared to pics of tons of weirdos out there whose only dream is purchasing a gun and killing people. Sad part: They don't even have to be a soldier to get one, people and government think this is okay. Let's mind our own bussiness America.


The first is - it is nothing, he is just a child (20 years), he did not do anything especially sick.

Or, mostly from his so-occupiers - he is bad, but IDF (should be called IOF) is OK.

So, is he a bad apple or an innocent child?

Neither. He is a typical of occupation army thugs, by the very nature of this army being a war criminal, a murderer and torturer, a robber and so on. This a face of colonialism. Nothing out of place for IOF here. Every day IOF is doing the same as of what this colonizer brags or fantasy. Only usually IOF at least try to cover up their crimes. Not that it is very successful - their daily crimes are more and more evident to all the world.

And this "youngster" is regularly making life hell for Palestinians, from babies to the elder. He is a stupid one, but not less deadly because of it. In short, he is a face of Zionist crimes against humanity.

And about the "reluctant" former member of IOF, there is NO such thing as "good soldier" in the army of colonizers. They are ALL guilty. The only honorable way our of this criminal enterprise is to resist a draft, to became CO.


Remember Berlin, remember the time when you were captured, tortured and killed...


This Israeli soldier is no exception. This is the type of attitudes and actions that the Breaking the Silence campaign has been revealing for several years. The IDF and the Israeli government as well as the minions on the web are frantically trying to contain this information. One must commend those responsible for capturing all these screen shots and other information. Many blood-thirsty US troops have engaged in similar trophy collection and glorification of their war crimes. Based on the information in the article above, this individual is a serious threat to the community where ever he is. That description can be applied to any number of US and Israeli soldiers who, in the end, are "hired" as soldiers for one reason only. To kill in the name of the ideologies that rule their countries and run their armies and intelligence services.


is all about stealing land from Arabs by any means necessary! Project Israel is about gradually subjecting, by sophisticated military forces, the Arab people to such oppression on a daily basis, like a dripping tap...more and more tightening the control, then releasing the control only to tighten again and again. The Israeli Occupation Forces the IOF, NOT , Israeli Defence Force that name is a smoke screen for the western USA media, has but one aim the subjugation of Palestinian Arabs, stealing their land, water, air space. Israel with USA and Western support has ruined the Palestinian economy, stolen all water resources since 1967 to make way for millions of illegal Jewish Zionist colonisers in the West Bank. All this misery is enforced by the Israeli Occupational Forces. Who are recruited to from anywhere across the world infact they are in all truth a mercenary army charged with messianic zeal.
Having been to the West Bank and seen these IOF in action I can tell you they treat Palestinians what ever their age , sex, status with utter contempt and seething hatred! They point guns deliberately at children and infants, they terrorize families, they instruct bulldozers to rubbles homes and kidnap thousands of children every year and put them in Israeli jails where they ignore all Human rights laws in their Project Israel , for the military anything goes! They actually hold Palestinian children under 'military laws' for throwing David stones at Goliath! This craven boy showing himself off here is just one of hundreds who daily with the fascist Israeli governments blessing humiliates, destroys, bullies, terrorises, injures, murders, steals, confiscates, prevents freedom of movement, insults, spits on and hates, Palestinian people whose only crime is to fight for THEIR land!


There isn't a lot to distinguish this guy from a nazi soldier.This is disgusting except for the dope smoking. Maybe if he did more of that instead of playing with guns he'd be less psychotic.


God has absolutely zero relevance to this article. As an Israeli it's obviously appalling to see this kind of behavior towards human beings, but don't be so close minded as to believe that there aren't Americans, Palestinians, Russians, Germans, and people from every country on earth just like this kid. There is a whole lot of hatred and contempt amongst Palestinians that is directed towards Israelis, you can not just look at one side of things and make a case against the IDF by only providing names of Palestinian lives lost and not the countless Israeli lives that have been lost as a result of this horrible never ending war. We are all human beings, people like this boy may not have respect for Palestinian live but that is NOT TRUE for all Israelis.


without it there would be NO "countless Israeli lives that have been lost as a result of this horrible never ending war."

And yes, we all are human. Just some of "you" are colonizers and some of us are victims of colonization.

The hasbara is turning very stale - no wonder. Lies and excuses and whitewashing is stale. Only the truth is like a fresh air


I know this looks terrible. But don't judge every soldier by these two incidents. The army does have serious repercussions for playing with guns. You go to jail for it. And just "killing Arabs" is also not the view of the army. Realize that the army is filled with people who all have their own individual beliefs. They may not be right, but they are entitled to these beliefs as you and I are entitled to our own.


Ali Abunimah

Co-founder of The Electronic Intifada and author of The Battle for Justice in Palestine, now out from Haymarket Books.

Also wrote One Country: A Bold-Proposal to End the Israeli-Palestinian Impasse. Opinions are mine alone.