Weekly Report of Human Rights Violations

The home of Hasan Sha’ath, 69, and his son Ibrahim Sha’ath, 45, that was destroyed by Israeli occupation forces, 16 August 2006. (PCHR)


Israeli Occupation Forces (IOF) Escalate Attacks on Palestinian Civilians and Property in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT)

  • 6 Palestinians, including two children and an old man, were killed by IOF.

  • A Palestinian civilian from Jenin died from a previous wound.

  • 36 Palestinian civilians, including 4 children and 3 women, were wounded by the IOF gunfire.

  • IOF launched a series of air strikes on a number of houses in the Gaza Strip.

  • 6 houses were destroyed and a 7th one was burnt in the Gaza Strip.

  • IOF conducted 40 incursions into Palestinian communities in the West Bank, and 4 others into the Gaza Strip.

  • IOF arrested 48 Palestinian civilians in the West Bank and 5 others in the Gaza Strip.

  • 4 houses were demolished in the West Bank.

  • IOF raided 3 hospitals in Hebron.

    IOF have continued to impose a total siege on the OPT; IOF have imposed a tightened siege on the Gaza Strip and there have been shortages of foodstuffs and fuels; IOF positioned at a various checkpoints in the West Bank arrested 8 Palestinian civilians, including two girls.

    IOF have continued to construct the Annexation Wall in the West Bank; they razed more areas of agricultural land in Qalqilya and used force to disperse a peaceful demonstration protesting the construction of the Wall in Bal’ein village, west of Ramallah.

    Israeli settlers have continued attacks against Palestinian civilians and property in the OPT; settlers celebrated a Jewish wedding inside the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron.

    As the international community has remained silent, IOF have continued to wage a full scale offensive on the Palestinian people, especially in the Gaza Strip. During the reported period, IOF have continued their Operation Grasshopper, under which they move in a certain area, commit crimes there and then redeploy outside it. They then move into another area and do the same. Hundreds of Palestinian families have been forced to leave their houses due to the IOF shelling.

    PCHR, monitoring with utmost concern the developments of this offensive, calls upon the international community, particularly the High Contracting Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and United Nations, to immediately intervene to force IOF to stop this offensive and allow the flow of foodstuffs, medical supplies and fuels into the Gaza Strip.

    The outcome of crimes committed by IOF since 25 June 2006:

  • 207 Palestinians, mostly civilians, including 46 children and 10 women, have been killed by IOF.

  • At least 815 Palestinian civilians, including 232 children and 27 women, have been wounded by the IOF gunfire.

  • At least 217 air-to-surface missiles and hundreds of artillery shells have been fired at Palestinian civilian and military targets in the Gaza Strip.

  • Buildings of the Palestinian Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of National economy, the office of the Palestinian Prime Minister and a number of educational institutions have been destroyed.

  • The electricity generation plant, providing 45% of the electricity of the Gaza Strip, was destroyed, and electricity networks and transmitters have been repeatedly attacked.

  • 6 bridges linking Gaza City with the central Gaza Strip and a number of roads have been destroyed.

  • Hundreds of donums of agricultural land and dozens of houses have been destroyed.

  • Hundreds of Palestinian civilians, including 8 ministers and 27 members of the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), including the Speaker and Deputy Speaker have been arrested. Minster of PrisonersÆ Affairs, Minister of Labor and Deputy Speaker of the PLC were released.

  • The Palestinian governmental compound in Nablus has been destroyed.

  • Many families in Rafah, Beit Hanoun and Beit Lahia have been forced to leave their houses.

  • IOF intelligence has warned some Palestinian civilians in the Gaza Strip by phone to evacuate their houses, which would be attacked.

  • 25 houses belonging to activists of Palestinian factions were destroyed by IOF warplanes.

  • IOF have imposed a strict siege on the OPT, and have isolated the Gaza Strip from the outside world.

    Israeli violations of international law continued in the OPT during the reported period (10 û 16 August 2006):

    Killing: During the reported period, IOF killed 5 Palestinian civilians and a member of the Palestinian resistance in the Gaza Strip, while a Palestinian civilian died from a wound he had sustained in Jenin refugee camp on 6 July 2006. On 14 August 2006, IOF killed 3 Palestinian civilians including a child, and wounded 3 others, including two children, when they fired a missile at a crowd of Palestinian civilians in the northern Gaza Strip town of Beit Hanoun. On 16 August 2006, IOF killed an elderly Palestinian and his son in Khan Yunis, when an IOF fighter jet leveled their house with a bomb. IOF did not give them sufficient time to evacuate the house, and they were killed during the evacuation. In addition, a second son and two neighbors were moderately wounded by shrapnel. On 17 August 2006, IOF killed a Palestinian militant during an incursion into al-Farrahin area in æAbasan village, east of Khan Yunis.

    Thus, the number of Palestinians killed by IOF in the Gaza Strip since the beginning of ôOperation Summer Rainsö on 25 June 2006 has increased to 187, including 43 children and 10 women. In addition, 715 others, mostly civilians, including 194 children, 26 women, 4 paramedics and 4 journalists, have been wounded.

    IOF also launched at least 9 air strikes on 7 houses and a store in the Gaza Strip belonging to Palestinian resistance activists. These houses were destroyed, and a number of neighboring houses and civilian facilities were severely damaged. IOF intelligence officers ordered owners of these houses by phone to evacuate their houses. The targeted houses were not located in confrontation areas, or in areas used to fire rockets. They were distributed in different parts of the Gaza Strip. In addition, they were multi-story apartment structures. The destruction caused fear among the civilian population. The destruction of houses is based on intelligence reports, which can be inaccurate or out of date and often do not justify attacks on civilians and their property. Article 53 of the Fourth Geneva Convention prohibits the destruction of real or personal property, “except where such destruction is rendered absolutely necessary by military operations.”

    During the reported, IOF fired dozens of artillery shells at Palestinian residential areas and agricultural land in the Gaza Strip. A number of Palestinian civilians were killed or wounded and a number of houses were damaged. Hundreds of families have been forced to leave their homes due to the IOF shelling.

    In the West Bank, Ussama al-Tubasi, 27, from Jenin refugee camp, died from a wound he had sustained in 6 July 2006, when an IOF attempted to extrajudicial execute two activists of the Palestinian resistance. Al-Tubasi was one of 18 Palestinians who were wounded in the attack.

    In addition, 13 Palestinian civilians, including 8 children and a woman, and an Israeli solidarity activist were wounded by IOF gunfire.

    Incursions: During the reported period, IOF conducted at least 40 military incursions into Palestinian communities, during which they raided dozens of houses and arrested 48 Palestinian civilians, including 5 children and two women. IOF also demolished 4 houses belonging to 4 brothers from the al-Nadi family in ‘Askar refugee camp, northeast of Nablus, claiming that their brother is allegedly wanted by IOF. This is an indication of the resumption of collective punishment measures by IOF against families of activists of the Palestinian resistance. In Hebron, IOF raided and searched 3 hospitals, claiming that they were looking for wounded wanted Palestinians. In the Gaza Strip, IOF conducted 4 incursions into Palestinian communities. They arrested 5 Palestinians and razed areas of agricultural land.

    Restrictions on Movement: IOF have continued to impose a tightened siege on the OPT and imposed severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including Occupied East Jerusalem.

    Gaza Strip

    IOF have imposed a strict siege on the Gaza Strip. They have closed its border crossings as a form of collective punishment against Palestinian civilians.

    IOF have closed Rafah International Crossing Point, even though they do not directly control it. They have prevented European observers working at the crossing point form reaching it. IOF have closed commercial crossings of the Gaza Strip, especially al-Mentar (Karni) crossing. As a consequence, the economic situation inside the Gaza Strip has further deteriorated and many goods have been lacked in markets. IOF have also continued to close Erez crossing in the northern Gaza Strip. In addition, IOF have prevented Palestinian fishermen from fishing.

    West Bank

    IOF have tightened the siege imposed on Palestinian communities in the West Bank. They have isolated Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank. IOF positioned at various checkpoints in the West Bank have continued to impose severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians. IOF have continued to separate between the north and south of the West Bank. During the reported period, IOF positioned at various checkpoints around imposed severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians. On Friday, 11 August 2006, IOF prevented Palestinian aged below 40 from going to the al-Aqsa Mosque for the Friday prayer. During the reported period, IOF positioned at various checkpoints in the West Bank arrested 8 Palestinian civilians, including two girls. One of the girls was released later.

    Annexation Wall: IOF have continued to construct the Annexation Wall inside the West Bank. During the reported period, IOF started to raze large areas of Palestinian agricultural land in ‘Azzoun and Kufor Laqef villages, east of Qalqilya, to construct a new section of the Wall in the areas. According to local sources in ‘Azzoun village, at least 250 donums of agricultural land are expected to be razed, and hundreds of donums will be isolated. On Thursday, 10 August 2006, the local council of Kufor Laqef village received a military order seizing 8 donums of land for “military purposes” until 31 December 2009. The land is located near “Kerni Shomron” settlement. IOF had already prevented Palestinian civilians from reaching the seized land. In addition, two Palestinian civilians and an Israeli solidarity activist were wounded, when IOF used force against a peaceful demonstration organized in protest to the construction of the Wall.

    Illegal Settler Activities: Israeli settlers in breach of international humanitarian law continue to reside in the OPT and have launched a series of attacks against Palestinian civilians and property. On Friday, 11 August 2006, IOF allowed a number of Israeli settlers to enter the Ibrahimi Mosque with musical instruments to celebrate a Jewish wedding, in disregard for the feelings of Palestinians. On Saturday and Sunday, 12 and 13 August 2006, Israeli settlers living in “Kiryat Arba” settlement, southeast of Hebron, attacked Palestinian civilians and property in Hebron. During the reported period, Israeli settlers living in “Nogohot” and “Metsvi Lakhish” settlement, southwest of Hebron, razed areas of Palestinian agricultural land to annex them to the settlements.

    Israeli Violations Documented during the Reporting Period (10 û 16 August 2006)

    1. Incursions into Palestinian Areas and Attacks on Palestinian Civilians and Property in the West Bank

    Thursday, 10 August 2006

  • At approximately 01:15, IOF moved into Kufir Zeibad village, south of Tulkarm. They besieged a house belonging to the Ghanayem family. They ordered residents of the house through megaphones to get out and they did. IOF soldiers then broke into the houses and searched it. Before their withdrawal, IOF arrested Maher Ahmed Ghanayem, 30, and his brother Mowaffaq, 35. The two are members of Palestinian security services. They were interrogated by IOF and then released a few hours later.

  • At approximately 01:30, an IOF fighter jet dropped a bomb on a 220-square-meter, two-storey house, in which 13 people (3 families) live, belonging to Subhi Hussein al-Kafarna, 48, in Martyr Bassel Na’im Street in the northern Gaza Strip town of Beit Hanoun. The house was destroyed and a number of neighboring houses were severely damaged. Al-Kfarna told PCHR that his son Hussein, an activist of the Islamic Jihad, received a call on his mobile phone from an IOF intelligence officer, 50 minutes prior to this attack, in which he was informed that the house would be bombarded.

  • Also at approximately 01:30, IOF moved into Nablus. They raided and searched a number of houses and arrested 3 Palestinian civilians:

    1. Fayez Sabe’ Ba’ara, 20;
    2. Mohammed Fareed al-Hindi, 21; and
    3. Muhannad Mohammed Faraj, 19.

  • At approximately 02:00, IOF moved into Kufor Ra’ei village, southwest of Jenin. They raided and searched a number of houses and arrested Mustafa ‘Aatef Melhem, 17.

  • Also at approximately 02:00, IOF moved into Jenin town and refugee camp. They raided and searched a number of houses, but no arrests were reported.

  • Also at approximately 02:00, IOF moved into al-Yamoun village, west of Jenin. They patrolled in the streets, and raided and searched a number of houses. No arrests were reported.

  • At approximately 02:20, an IOF fighter jet dropped two bombs on a 200-square-meter, 4-storey house, in which 20 people (6 families) live, belonging to Mohammed ‘Abdul Fattah Abu ‘Amsha, 56. The house was destroyed and a number of neighboring houses were severely damaged. Abu ‘Amahs told PCHR that his sons received calls on their mobile phones from IOF intelligence officers, in which they were informed that the house would be bombarded.

  • At approximately 03:00, IOF moved into Hebron. They raided and searched a number of houses located near “Kiryat Arba” settlement, east of the town, and arrested two Palestinian civilians:

    1. Nassim Majed Eskafi, 26; and
    2. Sufian Ibrahim Eskafi, 26.

  • Also at approximately 03:00, IOF moved into Dura village, southwest of Hebron. They raided and searched a number of houses, and arrested Murad Isma’il al-Faqeeh, 21.

  • At approximately 05:00, IOF moved into al-Masyoun and Um al-Sharayet neighborhoods in the south of Ramallah. They besieged al-Murjana apartment building and raided the building of the Palestinian Ministry of Public Works, transforming the office of the Minister on the 7th floor into a military site. IOF ordered residents of al-Murjana building through megaphones to get out and they did. IOF then held three families, whose members are allegedly wanted by them and forced the families to call on their sons through megaphones to surrender. The three wanted Palestinians got out and surrenders. IOF arrested the three Palestinians:

    1. Ramzi ‘Obaidu, 37;
    2. Eyad al-Farroukh, 25;
    3. Murad al-Malhi, 26.

    A number of Palestinian civilians gathered and threw stones at IOF vehicles. Immediately, IOF fired at these civilians, wounding Mahmoud Zuhri Jabarin, 20, with a live bullet to the hand.

  • At approximately 07:30, an IOF undercover unit moved into Thinnaba suburb, east of Tulkarm, traveling in a civilian car with a Palestinian registration plate. The car stopped near a house belonging to Mohammed Saleh Melhem, and IOF soldiers got out of it. Soon, IOF vehicles moved into the suburb and besieged the house. IOF soldiers ordered Jihad ‘Abdul Ghani Anees, 32, through megaphones to get out of the house. They also fired at the house. When Anees got out of the house, IOF soldiers arrested him. IOF claims that Anees is a member of the ‘Izziddin al-Qassam Brigades, the military wing of Hamas.

    Friday, 11 August 2006

  • At approximately 00:30, IOF warplanes fired a missile at a store belonging to Na’im Deeb Taha Fool, 44, in Jabalya refugee camp in the northern Gaza Strip. The store was destroyed. Ten minutes later, IOF warplanes fired another missile at a neighboring two-storey house belonging to Jameel Khalil al-Habeebi, in which 13 people live. The house was destroyed and 3 neighboring houses, in which 35 people live, were severely damaged. Foul received a phone call on his mobile phone from the IOF intelligence, one hour before the attack, in which he was informed that his house would be bombarded. He vacated the house and told his neighbors, including al-Habeebi, to vacate their houses. Al-Habeebi bought his house from Foul one year ago.

  • At approximately 04:00, IOF moved into ‘Aqabat Jaber refugee camp, south of Jericho. They raided and searched a house belonging to the family of Fadi Abu Tal’at, 27, and arrested him.

  • At approximately 07:15, IOF gunboats fired at least 12 shells in 6 hours at the areas that were known before the IOF redepolyemnt from the Gaza Strip in September 2005 as “Gani Tal” and “Netser Hazani” settlements. No casualties or damage were reported, but Palestinian civilians were extremely terrified.

  • At approximately 15:00, IOF permanently positioned in the center and south of Hebron moved into Jabal al-Rahma neighborhood near “Ramat Yishai” settlement outpost. They raided and searched a grocery shop belonging to ‘Abdul Mon’em Mohammed Sultan, 32, and arrested him and another unknown persons. IOF also damaged the shop.

  • At approximately 18:00, IOF moved into Taqqou’ village, south of Bethlehem. They patrolled in the streets and stopped and checked Palestinian civilians. A number of Palestinian boys gathered and threw stones at IOF vehicles. IOF soldiers fired at the body, but no casualties were reported. At approximately 22:00, IOF withdrew from the village.

  • At approximately 23:00, IOF permanently positioned in the center and south of Hebron raided and searched a number of houses in the old town. They forced families out and interrogated and photographed them. No arrests were reported.

  • Also at approximately 23:00, IOF moved into Abu Dis village, east of occupied Jerusalem. They raided and searched a house belonging to Saleem Quai’ and arrested his wife and his son, 20-year-old Munther.

    Saturday, 12 August 2006

  • At approximately 09:00, IOF moved from Gaza International Airport, southeast of Rafah, into Palestinian areas located to the east of Rafah International Crossing Point on the Egyptian border. At approximately 12:00, a heavy explosion was heard in the area. IOF claimed that the destroyed a tunnel under the border. In the afternoon, IOF razed large areas of agricultural land and destroyed a number of greenhouses. IOF resumed land leveling in the area at approximately 09:00 on the following day. They also destroyed a number of sites of the Palestinian National Security Forces on the Egyptian border.

  • At approximately 12:00, IOF moved into ‘Azzoun village, east of Qalqilya. They patrolled in the streets and fired live bullets and tear gas canisters at shops and near a mosque. A number of tear gas canisters fell onto the mosque, and dozens of Palestinian civilians, including old ones, suffered from tear gas inhalation. A number of Palestinian children threw stones at IOF vehicles. IOF arrested Ya’qoub Ghazi Swaidan, 17.

  • At approximately 21:00, IOf moved into Jenin. They patrolled in the streets and opened fire indiscriminately. They withdrew later and no arrests were reported.

  • At approximately 22:20, IOF moved into various areas in Hebron. They erected a number of checkpoints and stopped and checked Palestinian civilians. At approximately 23:30, IOF raided al-Ahli Hospital in the northwest of the town; al-Mizan Hospital in the north of the town; and Hebron Hospital in the center of the town, searching for allegedly wanted Palestinians. IOF withdrew at 00:30 on the following day, and no arrests were reported.

    Sunday, 13 August 2006

  • At approximately 02:15, IOF moved into Balata village, east of Nablus. They raided and searched a number of houses, and arrested 17-year-old ‘Abdul Rahman Abu Ghalyoun.

  • At approximately 02:30, IOF moved into al-‘Arouj village, southeast of Bethlehem. They raided and searched a number of houses and arrested Eyad ‘Abed al-‘Arouj, 19.

  • At approximately 09:30, IOF soldiers in a military jeep positioned at the border between the Gaza Strip and Israel, east of al-Boreij refugee camp, opened fire at a number of Palestinian farmers, who were working one their land nearly 400 meters away from the border. As a result, a woman and her child were wounded:

    1. Halima ‘Obaid Abu Sa’id, 39, wounded by a live bullet to the right thigh; and
    2. Sa’ed Sayel Abu Sa’id, 12, wounded by a live bullet to the chest.

  • At approximately 15:30, IOF moved into the industrial zone, south of Hebron. They closed its entrances and raided and searched 20 industrial facilities and held workers for several hours. They also summoned a number of workers to the IOF intelligence.

    Monday, 14 August 2006

  • At approximately 01:30, IOF moved into al-Yamoun village, southwest of Hebron. They patrolled in the streets, and raided and searched a number of houses. They withdrew from the village at approximately 06:00, and no arrests were reported.

  • Also at approximately 01:30, IOF moved into Tubas and Tammoun villages, southeast of Jenin. They patrolled in the streets, and raided and searched a number of houses. They withdrew from the two villages at approximately 04:30, and no arrests were reported.

  • At approximately 02:00, IOF moved into Halhoul town, north of Hebron. They raided and searched two houses and arrested two Palestinian civilians:

    1. Sameeh Mohammed al-Atrash, 23; and
    2. ‘Ali Subhi al-Baba, 18.

  • At approximately 02:15, IOF moved into Nablus and the neighboring Balata refugee camp. They raided and searched a number of houses, but no arrests were reported.

  • At approximately 02:30, IOF moved into Kufor Ra’ei village, southwest of Jenin. They raided and searched a number of houses and arrested two Palestinian civilians:

    1. ‘Othman Zuhair Melhem, 20; and
    2. Mohammed ‘Omar Melehm, 19.

  • At approximately 05:00, a house belonging to Ghazi ‘Aashour in al-Shouka village, east of Rafah, was burnt by the IOF artillery shelling. Residents of the house had already left it due to the danger posed to their lives by IOF artillery shelling.

  • At approximately 07:00, IOF moved into ‘Arraba village, south of Jenin. They patrolled in the streets. Three IOF jeeps took position at the main entrance of the village and opened fire at Palestinian civilian vehicles. No casualties were reported.

  • In the morning, IOF killed 3 Palestinian civilians including a child, and wounded 3 others, including two children, when they fired a missile at a crowd of Palestinian civilians in the northern Gaza Strip town of Beit Hanoun.

    According to investigations conducted by PCHR, at approximately 07:50, 4 members of the al-Quds Brigades, the military wing of the Islamic Jihad, launched a missile at Israeli territory from inside the Agricultural Secondary School in the north of Beit Hanoun. They then left the school through a hole in the fence, leaving the launcher in place.
    As the resistance members were leaving the area, a number of residents of the area intercepted, and attempted to attack them. Soon, a number of other residents of the area intervened to protect the resistance activists, but a number of gunmen from the area fired into the air and attempted to attack the resistance activists. Later, the four resistance activists were able to leave the area unhurt.

    Nearly half an hour later, a number of boys living in the area moved into the school through the same hole in the fence to take the rocket launcher left by the resistance activists to sell it as scrap, but a number of residents of the area attempted to prevent them. As Palestinian civilians gathered, IOF fired a missile at these civilians, killing 3 of them:

    1. Zuhair Mohammed Shehada al-Kafarna, 50;
    2. ‘Othman Hussein Mahmoud al-Bo’, 50; and
    3. Ahmed Yousef ‘Abed ‘Aashour, 13.

    Three civilians were also wounded:

    1. Hussam ‘Othman Hassan al-Bo’, 17;
    2. Bilal Ahmed Hussein al-Kafarna, 15; and
    3. Ma’awia Ya’qoub al-Kafarna, 19.

    According to field investigations conducted by PCHR staff, the attack took place near the southwestern fence of the school, which has a hole in it used by Palestinian resistance activists to get into and out of the school. There was also a rocket launcher near the fence. The launcher is 2.5-3 meters high and stands on 3 legs. Shrapnel found in the area was big and had flippers, electronic layers and iron pieces. The shrapnel is similar to that of surface-to-surface missiles previously launched by IOF on the Gaza Strip.

  • At approximately 09:00, IOF moved from Gaza International Airport, southeast of Rafah, towards al-Shouka School. They raided and searched a number of houses in the area. They arrested two Palestinian civilians: Fu’ad Mahmoud Hussein, 54; and ‘Othman Mahmoud Hussein, 45. IOF also destroyed a number of houses. Dozens of families living in al-Shouka village have been forced to leave their houses due to the IOF operations in the village. UNRWA have rented houses for some of these families, while others live in tents set up at schools and on agricultural land.

  • At approximately 20:00, IOF moved into Fahma village, southwest of Jenin. They opened fire at houses. As a result, at least 35 water tanks atop of houses and some windows were damaged.

  • At approximately 23:20, an IOF fighter jet dropped a bomb at a 100-square-meter, two-storey house, in which 7 people live, belonging to Mohammed Jouda ‘Awni Ma’rouf, in the center of Jabalya village in the northern Gaza Strip. The house was destroyed. 11 neighboring houses were damaged, and 14 Palestinian civilians were wounded. The IOF intelligence informed the owner that his house would be bombarded nearly 25 minutes before the attack.

    Tuesday, 15 August 2006

  • At approximately 01:30, IOF fighter jets dropped two bombs at a 350-square-meter, two-storey houses, in which 13 people (3 families) live, belonging to Mohammed Hussein Mohammed ‘Ouda, 64, in the center of Beit Hanoun town in the northern Gaza Strip. The two missiles hit the western part of the house, severely damaging it. Ten minutes later, the IOF fighter jets dropped two additional bombs at the house, completely destroying it and severely damaging a number of neighboring houses. Residents of the house told PCHR that the IOF intelligence phoned the owner’s son, Hussein, who is an activist of the Popular Resistance Committees, and ordered him to vacate the house, only 15 minutes before the first bombardment. The IOF intelligence phoned Hussein again and informed him that the house would be bombarded again, because it was not completely destroyed by the first attack.

  • Also at approximately 01:30, IOF moved into Qalqilya. They raided and searched a number of houses in al-Salam and Daoud quarters, firing live bullets and sound bombs indiscriminately. As a result, Mousa Nemer Daoud, 85, sustained bruises throughout the body, as IOF detonated a sound bomb inside his house. IOF forced residents of several houses out and searched the houses. Before their withdrawal, IOF arrested 3 Palestinian civilians:

    1. Jalal ‘Abed Qeshta, 25;
    2. Median Mashour ‘Amawi, 20; and
    3. Ahmed Mohammed Daoud, 19.

  • At approximately 02:00, IOF moved into Abu Katila and Qaizoun neighborhood in the northwest and east of Hebron respectively. They raided and searched two apartment buildings in the two neighborhoods and arrested two Palestinian civilians, including a gynecologist:

    1. Rifqa Mulaq al-Ja’bari, 43; and
    2. Nabeeh Kamel al-Ja’bari, 32.

  • At approximately 02:20, IOF, reinforced by two helicopters, moved into ‘Askar refugee camp, northeast of Nablus. They besieged a 180-square-meter house belonging to the family of Ahmed ‘Aadel al-Nadi, 23, and opened fire at it. As a result, al-Nadi’s sister, 34-year-old Maisaa; was wounded by shrapnel to the face. IOF ordered residents of the house and other houses belonging to the family through megaphones to get out, and they did. IOF asked about Ahmed, who is allegedly wanted, and demanded him to surrender. At approximately 04:00, IOF started to demolish the house and fired a number of shells at it. As a result, 13 people, including 3 children have become homeless. IOF also demolished 3 houses belong to Ahmed’s brothers, rendering 25 people (3 families) homeless. Additionally, IOF arrested 3 of Ahmed’s brothers: Ragheb, 27; Nihad, 32; and Mohammed, 26, in addition to his brother-in-law, 38-year-old Murad ‘Aaref Basheer. At approximately 07:00, a number of civilians gathered and threw stones at IOF vehicles. Immediately, IOF fired at these civilians, wounding 9 of them, including 8 children:

    1. ‘Omar Salah Ordoniya, 15, wounded by two rubber-coated metal bullet to the right ear and the left hand;
    2. Kamal Hisham Abu Keshek, 21, wounded by a live bullet to the left foot;
    3. Ra’fat Salah Jadallah, 17, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet to the back;
    4. Ibrahim Na’im Ameer, 15, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet to the back;
    5. Jameel Mohammed Minawi, 16, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet to the face;
    6. Mohammed Nidal Samara, 11, wounded by shrapnel to the left foot;
    7. Tha’er Hussein Abu al-‘Ez, 14, wounded by a live bullet to the left foot;
    8. Mahmoud Waleed Bahloul, 17, wounded by shrapnel to the left foot; and
    9. Murad Waleed al-Houtari, 14, wounded by shrapnel to the nose.

  • Also at approximately 02:20, IOF moved into Nablus and the neighboring ‘Ein Beit al-Maa’ refugee camp. They raided and searched a number of houses and arrested two Palestinian civilians:

    1. ‘Omar Hussein Khabbas, 23; and
    2. Tamer Nasser Taha, 22.

  • At approximately 02:30, IOF moved into Hebron. They raided and searched a house and a tourist compound in the center and west of the town respectively, and arrested two Palestinian brothers:

    1. ‘Alaa’ ‘Abdul Shakour al-Natsha, 23; and
    2. ‘Omar ‘Abdul Shakour al-Natsha, 26.

  • Also at approximately 02:30, IOF moved into al-Zahiriya village, south of Hebron. They raided and searched a house belonging to the family of Saber Ibrahim Abu ‘Allan, 17, and arrested him.

  • At approximately 03:00, IOF moved into Bourqin village, west of Jenin. They patrolled in the streets and opened fire at electricity supplies. As a result, electricity was cut off for several hours.

  • At approximately 17:00, medical sources at a Jordanian hospital declared that Ussama Jamal al-Tubasi, 27, from Jenin refugee camp, died from a wound he had sustained on 6 July 2006. According to PCHR’s documentation, at approximately 20:30 on Thursday, 6 July 2006, an IOF undercover unit moved into Jenin refugee camp in two cars with Palestinian license plates. The cars stopped in front of offices of the Popular Service Committee in the camp, near Dr. Khalil Suliman Hospital. A house of mourning for Fida’ Qandil had been set up in the committee’s premises. The undercover unit got out of the car and opened fire indiscriminately at the house of mourning. Zakaria al-Zubaidi, an activist of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (an armed wing of Fatah), and Mahmoud al-Sa’adi, an activist in the Al-Quds Brigades (the armed wing of Islamic Jihad) were in the house of mourning. Both managed to get away. Eighteen Palestinians were wounded, three of them seriously. Two of the wounded died later, and al-Tubasi, who was seriously wounded by a live bullet to the side, was evacuated to Nablus Specialized Hospital, and then transferred to a Jordanian hospital, where he died later.

  • At approximately 20:30, IOF moved into al-Zababda village, southeast of Jenin. They patrolled in the streets. A number of Palestinian children threw stones at IOF vehicles. IOF chased the children and arrested 15-year-old Ahmed Fathi Sa’id.

  • At approximately 23:45, two hours following an armed clash between a group of the al-Quds Brigades, the military wing of the Islamic Jihad, and IOF positioned at the border between the Gaza Strip and Israel, east of Khan Yunis, IOF moved nearly 400 meters into al-Farrahin area in ‘Abasan village, east of Khan Yunis. They opened fire indiscriminately and searched the areas. This incursion continued until 03:00 on Wednesday, 16 August 2006. At approximately 07:00 on Wednesday, IOF allowed a Palestinian medical crew to reach the border areas. The crew found the body of Mo’tassem Suleiman Qudaih, from ‘Abasan village, a member of the armed group that clashed with IOF. He apparently bled to death. According to residents of the area, IOF arrested another member of the armed group, Yasser Mohammed Abu Hamad, 19, from ‘Abasan, who was apparently wounded and unable to escape.

    Wednesday, 16 August 2006

  • In the early morning, IOF killed an elderly Palestinian and his son in Khan Yunis, when an IOF fighter jet leveled their house with a bomb. IOF did not give them sufficient time to evacuate the house, and they were killed during the evacuation. In addition, a second son and two neighbors were moderately wounded by shrapnel.

    According to investigations conducted by PCHR at approximately 01:00, the IOF intelligence called ‘Abdul Hadi Hassan Radwan Sha’at, 31, an activist of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, on his mobile phone. They ordered him to evacuate his house as it would be bombarded in a few minutes. Sha’at was not in the house at the time of the call, and he called his family to inform them of the warning. The 180-square-meter, 3-storey house is located in the densely populated Sheikh Nasser area in the east of Khan Yunis. The household started to evacuate the house at night and in the dark as electricity was cut off from the area at the time. During the evacuation, the IOF intelligence called Mustafa Sha’at, 29, ‘Abdul Hadi’s brother, who is also an activist in the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. They informed him that the house would be bombarded in a few minutes. Fifteen minutes after the first call and as the household were evacuating, an IOF fighter jet dropped a bomb on the house, destroying it completely. Hassan Radwan Shahin Sha’ath, the 69-year-old owner of the house, and his son Ibrahim, 45, were killed. Their bodies were found 10 meters away from the house. They were killed by cement blocks shattered by the bombardment. In addition, three civilians, including an owner’s son were wounded:

    1. ‘Abdul Rahman Hassan Sha’at, 35;
    2. ‘Abdullah Nizar Abu Taha, 29; and
    3. Mohammed Suliman Mustafa Sha’ath, 35.

    In addition, 5 nearby houses sheltering 10 families of 75 members sustained damage by the bombardment

  • At approximately 01:00, IOF moved into al-Khader village, southwest of Bethlehem. They raided and searched a number of houses, and arrested Mo’ayad Yousef al-Da’dou’, 28.

  • Also at approximately 01:00, IOF moved into Abu Katila neighborhood in the west of Hebron. They raided and searched a house belonging to the family of Mansour Radwan al-Qawasmi, 29, and arrested him.

  • At approximately 01:30, IOF moved into Yatta village, south of Hebron. They raided and searched a house belonging to Mohammed ‘Ali Nassar, and arrested two of his sons and one of his grandsons:

    1. ‘Aadel Mohammed Nassar, 33;
    2. Mohammed Mohammed Nassar, 25; and
    3. ‘Abed Salem Nassar.

  • At approximately 02:30, IOF moved into al-Yamoun village, southwest of Jenin. They raided and searched a number of houses and arrested 3 Palestinian civilians:

    1. Ja’far Ahmed Sammar, 22;
    2. Yahia Bassam Khamaisa, 23; and
    3. Hardan Mahmoud ‘Abahr, 20.

  • At approximately 04:30, IOF, reinforced by at least 50 military vehicles, moved nearly 1500 meters into Beit Hanoun. Under cover of indiscriminate fire, IOF razed areas of agricultural land planted with citrus belonging to the al-Za’anin family. At approximately 07:00, IOF ordered residents of al-Qutbaniya area, which includes 15 houses, to get out of houses and gather on a tract of agricultural land, and they did. IOF then arrested 17 of the residents, including a man and his two sons. Later, IOF withdrew from the area, and released 15 od the detainees.

  • At approximately 23:30, IOF warplanes fired 3 missiles at a two-storey, uninhabited house, used as a bird farm, belonging to Mohammed Mousa Sha’ban in ‘Asqoula neighborhood in the east of Gaza City. Two missiles hit the house and completely destroyed it, where as the 3rd one did not explode. It is worth noting that IOF bombarded a workshop belonging to Sha’ban in the same area 5 times.

    2. Continued Siege on the OPT

    IOF have continued to impose a tightened siege on the OPT and imposed severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including Occupied East Jerusalem.

    Gaza Strip

    Following an attack launched by Palestinian militants on 25 June 2006 near the Israeli-Egyptian border, southeast of Rafah, which left two IOF soldiers and two of the attackers dead and a third IOF soldier missing, IOF have closed all border crossings of the Gaza Strip:

  • Rafah International Crossing Point: Rafah International Crossing Point on the Egyptian border is the sole outlet for the Gaza Strip to the outside world. IOF have closed Rafah International Crossing Point, even though they do not directly control it. They have prevented European observers working at the crossing point form reaching it. PCHR has always warned following the agreement reached between the Palestinian and Israeli sides, which was brokered by the United States and the European Union, that IOF have complete, even though indirect, control over the crossing point. Thousands of Palestinian civilians have been stuck at the Egyptian side of the crossing, and hundreds of others have been deprived of their right to receive medical treatment abroad. During the reported period, the crossing point was completely closed. The crossing point was partially reopened on 18 and 19 July 2006 to allow thousands of Palestinians stuck at the Egyptian side to cross towards the Gaza Strip. Thousands of Palestinians visiting the Gaza Strip from other Arab countries have been stuck inside the Gaza Strip.

  • Beit Hanoun (Erez) Crossing: IOF have completely closed Beit Hanoun (Erez) crossing, which links the Gaza Strip with Israel and the West Bank. Before this latest closure, IOF had prevented Palestinian workers from reaching their work places inside Israel through Beit Hanoun (Erez) crossing since 12 March 2006. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians from the Gaza Strip had been prevented from traveling through this crossing. IOF had allowed international workers and Palestinian National Authority officials who have VIP cards to pass through the crossing, but without their private cars. With this closure, Palestinian patients have been prevented from traveling to hospitals in Israel and the West Bank.

  • Al-Mentar (Karni) Commercial Crossing: IOF have closed the crossing, which is the main commercial crossing for the Gaza Strip. As a consequence, the economic situation inside the Gaza Strip has further deteriorated and many goods have been lacked in markets. On Tuesday, 15 August 2006, IOF re-closed the crossing after having partially opened it for 4 days for importation only. Nahal Ouz crossing, east of Gaza City, which is designed for the importation of fuel, has been operated at a low capacity, which has created a crisis of fuel in the Gaza Strip, especially following the destruction of the electricity generation plant.

    The closure of border crossings deprives the Palestinian civilian population in the Gaza Strip of their right to freedom of movement, education and health.

    IOF have continued to impose severe restrictions on fishing in the Gaza Strip. Following the attack on IOF on 25 June 2006, IOF prevented fishing. Approximately 35,000 people in and around Gaza’s coastal communities rely on the fishing industry, including 2,500 fishermen, 2,500 support staff and their families. Fishermen have been subjected to intensive monitoring by IOF, which use helicopter gunships and gunboats to monitor the fishermen. On a number of occasions, IOF has opened fire against the civilian fishermen in order to enforce the 9 nautical mile limit imposed on them. The Oslo Accords make provision for Gaza’s sea to be fished to 20 nautical miles.

    The West Bank

    IOF have imposed a tightened siege on the West Bank. They have continued to impose severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians and imposed curfews on a number of Palestinian communities.

  • Jerusalem: IOF have continued to impose a strict siege on the city. On Friday, 11 August 2006, IOF imposed additional restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians, especially in the old town. According to eyewitnesses, IOF prevented Palestinians aged below 40 from praying at the al-Aqsa Mosque.

    On Saturday morning, 12 August 2006, IOF positioned at Jaba’ checkpoint, northeast of Jerusalem, arrested Anwar Hafze Hannoud, 27, from al-Far’a village northeast of Nablus, when he was on his way to his work in Ramallah.

  • Ramallah: IOF have continued to impose severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians. During the reported period, IOF reinforced their presence at ‘Attara checkpoint, north of Ramallah. IOF positioned at the checkpoint imposed additional restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians. On Thursday afternoon, 10 August 2006, IOF positioned at the checkpoint imposed severe restrictions on Palestinian employees who were on their way back homes in the northern West Bank. On Saturday morning, 12 August 2006, IOF obstructed the passage of hundreds of employees traveling from the northern West Bank to Ramallah.

  • Hebron: IOF have imposed severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians. They have closed a number of roads and entrances of some neighborhoods and erected some checkpoints inside and around the town. IOF have also patrolled in streets. Additionally, they have imposed additional restrictions at permanent checkpoints. On Thursday morning, 10 August 2006, IOF closed the northern entrance of Hebron, and prohibited the movement of Palestinian civilians to and from the town. IOF also stabled two monitoring cameras as a checkpoint in the area. At approximately 17:00 on Sunday, 13 August 2006, IOF erected a checkpoint at al-Hadab û al-Fawar intersection, southwest of Hebron. They stopped and checked Palestinian civilians. At the same time, IOF closed all roads leading to al-Jalajel, al-Bwaira and al-Baq’a areas, east of Hebron, separating them from Hebron. At approximately 18:00, IOF erected a checkpoint at Yatta û al-Sammou’ intersection, south of Hebron. They stopped and checked Palestinian civilians.

    At approximately 09:00 on Wednesday, 16 August 2006, IOF positioned near the Ibrahimi Mosque in the south of Hebron arrested Eyad Sa’di Banat, 22.

  • Bethlehem: on Thursday and Friday, 10 and 11 August 2006, IOF reinforced their presence on the roads leading to villages located to the south and southwest of Hebron. Thy erected a number of checkpoints in the area, and stopped and checked Palestinian civilians. They also held some civilians for several hours.

    On Monday evening, 14 August 2006, IOF positioned at a checkpoint near “Male Adomim” settlement arrested Sameeh Ahmed Salahat, 36, from Bethlehem.

  • Nablus: IOF have continued to impose severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians. On Thursday afternoon, 10 August 2006, IOF erected two checkpoints at a bypass road located to the south of Nablus. They stopped and searched dozens of Palestinian civilian vehicles. Palestinians living in the north of West Bank travel to Ramallah through this road. On Saturday morning, 12 August 2006, IOF erected a checkpoint on the same road. They stopped, checked and bused Palestinian civilians. On Sunday morning, 13 August 2006, IOF closed Beit Eiba checkpoint, west of Nablus. The closure of the road continued for 4 hours. On Monday morning, 14 August 2006, IOF positioned at Za’tara checkpoint, south of Nablus, prevented hundreds of Palestinian civilians wishing to travel to Ramallah from crossing the checkpoint. During the reported period, IOF positioned at various checkpoints around Nablus prevented Palestinians aged below 30 from crossing the checkpoints, and imposed severe restrictions on the movement of other Palestinians

    On Thursday evening, 10 August 2006, IOF positioned at Beit Eiba checkpoint, west of Nablus, arrested two Palestinian girls, who study at an-Najah National University:

    1. Nuha ‘Abdul Fattah Bushnaq, 22, from Kufor ‘Abboush village south of Tulkarm; and
    2. Haya Mazen Janem, 20.

    IOF released the second girl later, whereas the first one remained in custody.

    On Saturday afternoon, 12 August 2006, IOF positioned at a checkpoint opposite to Qousin village, west of Nablus, arrested Ameer Shaker Da’as, 24, from Kufor Qaddoum village east of Qalqilya.

  • Tulkarm: IOF have continued to impose severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians. On Thursday, 10 August 2006, IOF positioned at ‘Ennab checkpoint, east of Tulkarm, and at Wad al-Teen checkpoint, south of the town, continued to prevent Palestinians aged below 35 from passing through the two checkpoints. They stopped and checked Palestinian civilians. On Friday, 11 August 2006, IOF closed Tulkarm û Nablus road, and informed Palestinian civilians that the road would be closed everyday after 19:00. On Saturday, 12 August 2006, IOF continued to prevente Palestinians aged below 35 from crossing all checkpoints around Tulkarm. IOF soldiers chased young men who resorted to alternative branch roads, and held dozens of them for several hours under the sun.

    On Wednesday evening, 16 August 2006, IOF positioned at Bala’a checkpoint, east of Tulkarm, arrested Fekri Abu al-Haija, 27, a police officer, from Nour Shams refugee camp east of Tulkarm.

  • Jenin: IOF have continued to severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians. On Thursday morning, 10 August 2006, IOF erected a checkpoint at al-Mansoura intersection on Jenin û Nablus road. They stopped and searched Palestinian civilian vehicles. IOF also erected two checkpoints at the entrances of ‘Arraba and Sanour villages, south of Jenin. On Friday evening, IOF erected a checkpoint at al-Mansoura intersection on Jenin - Nablus road. They stopped and searched dozens of Palestinian civilian vehicles. On Saturday morning, 12 August 2006, IOF positioned at Tayaseer checkpoints, southwest of Jenin, held dozens of Palestinian civilian vehicles for several hours.

    On Saturday morning, 12 August 2006, IOF positioned at a checkpoint at the eastern entrance of al-Zababda village, southeast of Jenin, arrested Ahmed Sameeh Abu al-Rub, 30, from Qabatya village, when he was on his way to his work in Tubas village.

    3. Construction of the Annexation Wall

    IOF have continued to construct the Annexation Wall inside West Bank territory.

  • At approximately 13:30 on Friday, 11 August 2006, at least 400 Palestinian civilians and international and Israeli solidarity activists organized a peaceful demonstration in Bal’ein village, west of Ramallah, in protest to the construction of the Wall. IOF fired rubber-coated metal bullets at the demonstrators, wounding 3 of them:

    1. Leo Moor, 25, an Israeli solidarity activist, seriously wounded by two rubber-coated metal bullets to the head and the neck;
    2. Nemer Mustafa, 22, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet to the chest; and
    3. Wa’el Nasser Hussein, 29, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet to the hand.

    IOF soldiers also violently beat ‘Abdullah Abu Rahma, 35, member of the Committee against the Wall in the village. He sustained bruises.

  • On Monday morning, 14 August 2006, IOF started to raze large areas of Palestinian agricultural land in ‘Azzoun and Kufor Laqef villages, east of Qalqilya, to construct a new section of the Wall in the areas. According to local sources in ‘Azzoun village, at least 250 donums of agricultural land are expected to be razed, and hundreds of donums will be isolated. On Thursday, 10 August 2006, the local council of Kufor Laqef village received a military order seizing 8 donums of land for “military purposes” until 31 December 2009. The land is located near “Kerni Shomron” settlement. IOF had already prevented Palestinian civilians from reaching the seized land.

    4. Settlement Activities and Attacks by Settlers against Palestinian Civilians and Property

    Israeli settlers (living in the OPT in violation of international humanitarian law) have continued their attacks against Palestinian civilians and property:

  • At approximately 10:30 on Friday, 11 August 2006, many Israeli settlers from “Kiryat Arba” and “Kharsina” settlements, southeast of Hebron, and other settlement outposts in the center of Hebron, entered the Ibrahimi Mosque under escort by IOF. They brought musical instruments and loudspeakers to celebrate a Jewish wedding. The wedding party continued until 13:10, as Palestinians were doing the Friday Prayer. The Muezzin was not able to call for the prayer. Palestinian clerks demanded the IOF Civil Administration to stop the wedding party inside the mosque, but all efforts failed. It is worth noting that IOF have repeatedly prevented the Muezzin of the Ibrahimi Mosque from calling for prayers.

  • On Saturday and Sunday, 12 and 13 August 2006, Israeli settlers living in “Kiryat Arba” settlement, southeast of Hebron, attacked Palestinian civilians in Wadi al-Husain and Wadi al-Nasara neighborhood near the settlement with stones and empty bottles. They also used trained dogs in these attacks. IOF were present in the area, but did not intervene to stop the attacks.

  • On Monday morning, 14 august 2006, Israeli settlers living in “Nogohot” and “Metsvi Lakhish” settlements, which stand on Palestinian land in the west f Dura village, southwest of Hebron, accompanied by a bulldozer and escorted by IOF, razed large areas of Palestinian agricultural land to the east of the two settlements. According to local sources, at least 100 donums of agricultural land were razed to expand the two settlements.

    Recommendations to the International Community

    1. PCHR calls upon the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention to fulfill their legal and moral obligations under Article 1 of the Convention to ensure Israel’s respect for the Convention in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. PCHR believes that the conspiracy of silence practiced by the international community has encouraged Israel to act as if it is above the law and encourages Israel continue to violate international human rights and humanitarian law.

    2.PCHR calls upon the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention to convene a conference to take effective steps to ensure Israel’s respect of the Convention in the OPT and to provide immediate protection for Palestinian civilians.

    3.PCHR calls upon the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention to comply with its legal obligations detailed in Article 146 of the Convention to search for and prosecute those responsible for grave breaches, namely war crimes.

  • 4. PCHR recommends international civil society organizations, including human rights organizations, bar associations and NGOs to participate in the process of exposing those accused of grave breaches of international law and to urge their governments to bring these people to justice.

    5. PCHR calls upon the European Union to activate Article 2 of the Euro-Israel Association Agreement, which provides that Israel must respect human rights as a precondition for economic cooperation between the EU states and Israel. PCHR further calls upon the EU states to prohibit import of goods produced in illegal Israeli settlements in the OPT.

    6. PCHR calls upon the member States of the EU, and all other states, to adopt a voting pattern at the UN bodies, particularly the General Assembly, Security Council and Commission on Human Rights which is keeping with international law.

    7. PCHR demands that the International Court of Justice Advisory Opinion be immediately implemented by the international community.

    8. PCHR calls on the international community to recognize the Gaza disengagement plan, which was implemented last year, for what it is - not an end to occupation but a compounding of the occupation and the humanitarian crisis in the Gaza Strip.

    9. In recognition of ICRC as the guardian of the Fourth Geneva Convention, PCHR calls upon the ICRC to increase its staff and activities in the OPT, including the facilitation of family visitations to Palestinian prisoners in Israeli jails.

    10. PCHR appreciates the efforts of international civil society, including human rights organizations, bar associations, unions and NGOs, and urges them to continue their role in pressuring their governments to secure Israel’s respect for human rights in the OPT and to end its attacks on Palestinian civilians.

    11. In light of the severe restrictions imposed by the Israeli government and its occupying forces on access for international organizations to the OPT, PCHR calls upon European countries to deal with Israeli citizens in a similar manner.

    12. PCHR reiterates that any political settlement not based on international human rights law and humanitarian law cannot lead to a peaceful and just solution of the Palestinian question. Rather, such an arrangement can only lead to further suffering and instability in the region. Any peace agreement or process must be based on respect for international law, including international human rights and humanitarian law.

    The Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR) is an independent legal body based in Gaza City dedicated to protecting human rights, promoting the rule of law and upholding democratic principles in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. It holds Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations and is an affiliate of the International Commission of Jurists, the dÚration Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme (FIDH), and the Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network. PCHR is a recipient of the 1996 French Republic Award for Human Rights.