20-26 July 2006
Israeli Occupation Forces (IOF) Escalate Attacks on Palestinian Civilians and Property in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT) and Launch an Unprecedented Media Campaign in the Gaza Strip
As the international community has remained silent, IOF have continued to wage a full scale offensive on the Palestinian people, especially in the Gaza Strip. During the reported period, IOF have waged a media war against Palestinian civilians. They have dropped leaflets in streets and on roofs of houses, phoned civilians threatening to destroy their houses if they helped Palestinian resistance activists, and ordered a number of Palestinian resistance activists through phone calls on their mobile phones to evacuate their houses, which would be destroyed. IOF have further continued to attack journalists in an attempt to prevent them from reporting on Israeli practices in the OPT. They have also penetrated the broadcasting waves of a number of local radio, and broadcast warnings and threats to Palestinian civilians. Israel seeks to legitimize collective punishment against Palestinian civilians by claiming in its media that it does not target unarmed civilians and that it warns them before attacking any building belonging to them or located near them.
PCHR, monitoring with utmost concern the developments of this offensive, calls upon the international community, particularly the High Contracting Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and United Nations, to immediately intervene to force IOF to stop this offensive and allow the passage of foodstuffs, medical supplies and fuels into the Gaza Strip. PCHR warns the international community of the policies of collective punishment and reprisals practiced by IOF against the Palestinian civilian population, especially the destruction of electricity sources and the denial of passage of foodstuffs and fuels into the Gaza Strip, which will lead to a humanitarian crisis in the Gaza Strip. Attacks in the OPT are not merely violations of the Fourth Geneva Convention, rather they constitute a war waged by Israel against Palestinian civilians. This war has included the destruction of the civilian infrastructure, including an electricity generation plant and a number of bridges, and imposed a strict siege on the Gaza Strip - all border crossings have been closed for the movement of persons and goods to and from the Gaza Strip has been prohibited. This war waged by Israel is a war against civilians, in disregard to international humanitarian law. Israel has been encouraged by the US support and the European silence to launch more attacks against Palestinian civilians and then against Lebanon.
The outcome of crimes committed by IOF since 25 June 2006:
Israeli violations of international law continued in the OPT during the reported period (20-26 July 2006):
Killing: During the reported period, IOF killed 38 Palestinians, including 21 civilians, in the Gaza Strip. The victims included a mentally disabled person, 8 children and 3 women. In addition, a child, a mentally disabled person and a resistance activist died from previous wounds. Nine of the victims are from 3 families and were killed in 3 separate attacks: a woman, her two children and their uncle were killed in al-Shojaeya neighborhood in Gaza City on 21 July 2006, when IOF shelled their house; an old woman and her grandchild were killed in Beit Lahia on 24 July 2006, when an IOF aircraft fired a missile at their animal cart; and a woman and her two children were killed in Jabalya on 26 July 2006, when IOF shelled their house. Four Palestinian civilians, including a child, were killed, when IOF shelled al-Nada tower buildings, west of Beit Hanoun. A child was also killed, when IOF shelled al-Qarara village, east of Khan Yunis. Another child was killed in al-Maghazi refugee camp in the central Gaza Strip. IOF have moved into al-Shojaeya neighborhood in Gaza City, killing 17 Palestinians.
In addition, 146 Palestinians, mostly civilians, including 33 children, two women, two paramedics and two journalists, were wounded by IOF gunfire. Thus, the number of Palestinians killed by IOF since the beginning of “Operation Summer Rains” on 25 June 2006 has increased to 149, including 77 civilians. These civilians have included 32 children and 8 women. In addition, 626 others, mostly civilians, including 163 children, 21 women, 4 paramedics and 4 journalists, have been wounded.
IOF also launched at least 30 air strikes on a number of targets in the Gaza Strip, including 5 houses belonging to Palestinian resistance activists. These houses were destroyed, and a number of neighboring houses and civilian facilities were severely damaged. IOF intelligence officers ordered owners of these houses by phone to evacuate their houses. The targeted houses were not located in confrontation areas, or in areas used to fire rockets. They were distributed in different parts of the Gaza Strip. In addition, they were multi-story apartment structures. The destruction caused fear among the civilian population. These bombardments are a flagrant violation of Article 53 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, which prescribes that “it is prohibited for the occupying power to destroy private property of individuals, groups, state, public authority, or social and cooperative organizations except if military operations deem it an unavoidable necessity.” The legal interpretation of this article sets the following criteria for targeting a civilian installation:
These criteria do not fit the cases in which IOF bombed civilian houses.
In a further escalation, IOF fired dozens of artillery shells at al-Nada tower buildings, west of Beit Hanoun. A number of Palestinian civilians were killed or wounded and a number of flats were damaged. Residents of the building were forced to leave their flats due to the IOF shelling. It is worth noting that the number of towers in the area is 26, each of which consists of 18 flats. At least 2,300 Palestinians or 468 families live in these buildings.
In the West Bank, a Palestinian civilian was killed by shrapnel when IOF destroyed the Palestinian governmental compound in Nablus. In addition, 5 civilians, including two children, were wounded by the Israeli gunfire.
Incursions: During the reported period, IOF reoccupied some areas in the Gaza Strip. The widest of such operations was in al-Shojaeya neighborhood in Gaza City, which started on 26 July 2006. On 21 July 2006, IOF withdrew from al-Maghazi refugee camp, following a two-day incursion into the camp. During this incursion, IOF killed 17 Palestinians and wounded 125 others. They also destroyed 207 donums of land, 13 houses and the civilian infrastructure of the camp.
In the West Bank, IOF conducted at least 28 military incursions into Palestinian communities, during which they raided dozens of houses, buildings and civil institutions. IOF raided houses and arrested 78 Palestinian civilians, including 14 children and 5 brothers.
On Friday evening, 21, July 2006, IOF withdrew from Nablus following a 3-day incursion into the city. During this incursion, IOF killed 5 Palestinians, including two civilians, and wounded 68 civilians, including 27 children and 3 journalists. They also destroyed the Palestinian governmental compound in the city.
Restrictions on Movement: IOF have continued to impose a tightened siege on the OPT and imposed severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including Occupied East Jerusalem.
Gaza Strip: Following an attack launched by Palestinian militants on 25 June 2006 near the Israeli-Egyptian border, southeast of Rafah, which left two IOF soldiers and two of the attackers dead and a third IOF soldier missing, IOF have closed all border crossings of the Gaza Strip:
IOF have closed Rafah International Crossing Point, even though they do not directly control it. They have prevented European observers working at the crossing point form reaching it. PCHR has always warned following the agreement reached between the Palestinian and Israeli sides, which was brokered by the United States and the European Union, that IOF have complete, even though indirect, control over the crossing point. On 18 and 19 July 2006, IOF permitted reopening the crossing point partially, with the presence of EU observers and in agreement with the Egyptian side, for travelers wishing to come back to the Gaza Strip. IOF have closed commercial crossings of the Gaza Strip, especially al-Mentar (Karni) crossing. As a consequence, the economic situation inside the Gaza Strip has further deteriorated and many goods have been locked in markets. IOF have also continued to close Erez crossing in the northern Gaza Strip. In addition, IOF have prevented Palestinian fishermen from fishing.
IOF have tightened the siege imposed on Palestinian communities in the West Bank since Thursday morning, 20 July 2006. They have cancelled permits offered to Palestinians from the West Bank to enter Jerusalem. IOF positioned at various checkpoints in the West Bank have continued to impose severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians. IOF have continued to separate between the north and south of the West Bank. During the reported period, IOF positioned at various checkpoints around imposed severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians. During the reported period, IOF at checkpoints in the West Bank arrested two Palestinian civilians, and violently beat a third one. On 26 July 2006, a Palestinian patient at an IOF checkpoint near Qalqilya, as IOF prevented his evacuation to the hospital to be treated for an acute heart attack.
Annexation Wall: IOF have continued to construct the Annexation Wall inside the West Bank. During the reported period, IOF razed areas of Palestinian land in al-Sawhra al-Gharbiya village, east of occupied Jerusalem, to complete the construction of a section of the Wall in the area. IOF also razed dozens of donums of agricultural land in Jourat al-Shama’a village, south of Bethlehem, to construct a section of the Wall to the southeast of “Efrat” settlement.
Illegal Settler Activities: Israeli settlers in breach of international humanitarian law continue to reside in the OPT and have launched a series of attacks against Palestinian civilians and property. During the reported period, two Palestinian civilians were wounded when settlers fired at them in two separate attacks in Housan village, west of Bethlehem, and al-Zahiriya village, south of Hebron. IOF also burnt trees in Abu Ghunaim Forest to expand “Har Homa” settlement, south of Jerusalem.
Israeli Violations Documented during the Reporting Period (20 - 26 July 2006)
1. Israeli Offensive on the Gaza Strip
For the fifth consecutive week, IOF continued their open-ended offensive on the OPT, especially in the Gaza Strip, after Palestinians had captured an IOF soldier from a military outpost on 25 June 2006. Since then, IOF have been perpetrating war crimes and serious violations in several areas in the Gaza Strip. These crimes have included willful killing, disproportionate use of lethal force; destruction of civilian infrastructure, including electricity and water networks; large scale destruction of public and private property; air strikes and mock air raids on civilian targets, including educational institutions; governmental compounds; and training sites and activists of Palestinian resistance organizations.
In addition, IOF have targeted journalists and media crews covering the events on the ground. PCHR believes that attacks against journalists aims at hindering journalists from conducting their professional duty of sending the picture of crimes perpetrated by the Israeli government to world public opinion.
The military escalation has been accompanied by the complete closure imposed on the Gaza Strip since 25 June 2006, and the subsequent severe humanitarian and economic conditions. IOF have closed border crossings, keeping thousands of Palestinians at the Egyptian side of the Rafah International Crossing Point, and preventing the flow of food, medicines and fuel through commercial crossings. As a result, the Gaza Strip is on the verge of a humanitarian and environmental disaster.
During the reported period, the IOF spokesman stated that IOF would attack houses under suspicion to prevent militant groups from accumulating weapons. Following this statement, IOF have attacked a number of houses in the Gaza Strip after ordering their residents to evacuate them. Many Palestinian civilians living near the targeted houses have been also forced to leave their houses.
Thursday, 20 July 2006
IOF continued their offensive on al-Maghazi refugee camp in the central Gaza Strip, which started on Wednesday morning, 19 July 2006.
1. Mousa Hassan Qandil, 47; and
2. Mustafa Hussein Qattoush, 21.
1. Mohammed Khamis al-Salhi, 42, wounded by shrapnel to the left shoulder; and
2. Mohammed Yousef al-‘Azaiza, 22, wounded by shrapnel to the right forearm.
Friday, 21 July 2006
According to investigations conducted by PCHR, at approximately 06:10, an IOF tank stationed along the border east of Gaza City fired a shell at a house belonging to Jaber Harara, located near al-Mentar Hill close to the border. The shell landed directly on the roof of the 3-story house. Two of Jaber’s children and their cousin were on the roof. They were killed instantly. Jaber’s wife went up from the second floor to see what happened after the first shell landed. As soon as she reached the roof, a second shell was fired at the roof. She was killed instantly. The victims were identified as:
1. Mo’min Jaber Harara, 18;
2. ‘Aamer Jaber Harara, 21;
3. Sabah Harara, 45, the mother of the above two victims; and
4. Mohammad Hamdi Harara, 27.
In addition, two other members of the family were wounded by shrapnel:
1. Mohammed Jaber Harara, 20; and
2. ‘Omar Jaber Harara, 18.
Commenting on the crime, an IOF spokesman claimed that IOF soldiers noticed two militants in the area, who were about to fire rockets at the border, and IOF fired shells at them. IOF moved into the area after firing the shells, and started to raze agricultural land.
Saturday, 22 July 2006
Sunday, 23 July 2006
Monday, 24 July 2006
According to al-Sheikh Deeb, who is a member of the Palestinian resistance, he received a phone call on his mobile from an unknown number at approximately 23:00 on Sunday, 23 June 2006. The caller claimed that his name is Dani and he is an Israeli intelligence officer. He informed him that his house would be attacked and that he should evacuate it in one hour. Al-Sheikh Deem immediately evacuated the house. At midnight, the Palestinian police arrived at the areas and told the owner that they were informed that his house would be attacked.
According to investigations conducted by PCHR, at approximately 13:25 on Monday, 24 July 2006, IOF positioned at the border between the Gaza Strip and Israel fired a number of artillery shells at al-Nada tower buildings in the west of the northern Gaza Strip town of Beit Hanoun. One of these shells hit building (10), only 20 meters away from Beit Hanoun clinic. As a result, 3 Palestinian civilians, including a child, were killed:
1. Saleh Ibrahim Nasser, 14;
2. Sadiq Ahmed Nasser, 31; and
3. Sa’di Ahmed Na’im, 30.
In addition, 11 other civilians, including 3 children and a woman, were wounded. PCHR’s field worker in the northern Gaza Strip reported that residents of the affected area started to leave it to avoid being harmed by the IOF shelling.
At approximately 15:35, IOF resumed shelling residential areas in the northern Gaza Strip. A number of shells hit al-‘Atatra area near the American International School, northwest of Beit Lahia. As a result, a Palestinian woman and her grandchild were killed when they were on their way back home on an animal cart:
1. Khairiya Hashem al-‘Attar, 62; and
2. Nadi Habeeb al-‘Attar, 10.
Three other civilians, including two children, were also wounded by shrapnel.
According to investigations conducted by PCHR, at approximately 18:25, IOF shelled al-Nadar tower buildings, west of Beit Hanoun. An artillery shell landed near tower building 12. As a result, Khitam Mohammed Rebhi Tayeh, 11, and her sister Nuha, 10, were wounded, when they were on their way to a grocery shop. Khitam was seriously wounded, and she died later. A third civilian, 49-year-old Sameer al-Ashqar, was wounded by shrapnel to the right foot.
1. ‘Emad Yousef Sahweel, 33, wounded by shrapnel to the left hand; and
2. Eshtaiwi al-‘Aazazma, 32, wounded by shrapnel to the left foot.
Tuesday, 25 July 2006
PCHR’s field worker in Khan Yunis reported that a shell fell near an ambulance that was on its way to evacuate the wounded, but no casualties were reported.
Wednesday, 26 July 2006
According to investigations conducted by PCHR, at approximately 00:30, IOF tanks, armored vehicles and bulldozers moved nearly one kilometer into the Gaza Strip, east of Gaza City. These forces took positions on the eastern outskirts of al-Sha’af and al-Tuffah neighborhoods in Gaza City. IOF started to fire heavily at the houses. In addition, IOF drones fired missiles at Palestinian civilians and resistance activists. At approximately 05:00, an IOF drone fired a missile at a number of Palestinian resistance activists, who were in a civilian populated area in Abu Hassanain Street in al-Sha’af neighborhood. As a result, 4 resistance activists and two civilians, including a 3-year old girl, were killed:
1. Bara’ Nasser Habib, 3, hit by shrapnel to the head and body;
2. Mohammad Sobhi Haniya, 25;
3. Hussam Jassar al-Saudi, 30;
4. Yahia Srour al-Saudi, 24;
5. Salam Suleiman al-Saudi, 42; and
6. Saleh Khader Hassanain, 20.
At approximately 06:30, an IOF drone fired a missile at a number of Palestinian resistance activists. One of them, Yasser Khamis Banat, 20, was killed by shrapnel throughout the body.
At approximately 10:15, an IOF tank fired a shell at a number of Palestinian resistance activists in al-Shorafa grove, near a brick factory. Two resistance activists were killed by shrapnel throughout the body:
1. Mohammad Salah al-Bahtini, 35; and
2. Nabil Nasser Zaino, 21.
At approximately 12:30, an IOF tank opened fire at a number of Palestinian civilians in Salah al-Din Street, near the 7-Up Factory. Hani Mohammad H’jeila, 28, was killed by a live bullet to the chest.
At approximately 12:50, an IOF drone fired a missile at a number of Palestinian civilians near Bahloul fuel station in Salah al-Din Street. A resistance activist, Nafez Hanouna, 23, was killed.
At approximately 15:20, an IOF drone fired a missile at a number of Palestinian. A resistance activist, Majed Hamdi Habash, 30, was killed.
At approximately 13:30, an IOF drone fired a missile at a number of Palestinian. A resistance activist, Mohammed Nahedh Habib, 29, was killed.
At approximately 14:00, an IOF drone fired a missile at a number of Palestinian. A resistance activist, Mohammed Anwar Sa’du, 19, was killed.
At approximately 19:00, medical sources at Shifa Hospital in Gaza City declared that ‘Adnan Waleed al-Saudi, 20, a resistance activist, died from a wound he had sustained in the morning.
At approximately 20:30, an IOF warplane fired a missile at a number of Palestinian. A resistance activist, Na’el Fa’eq Abu ‘Aassi, 20, was killed.
At approximately 22:20, Ziad Mohammed Salem, 45, was killed by a live bullet to the chest, when he was near his house, as IOF continued to fire at the area.
IOF bulldozers continue to raze large tracts of agricultural land in the area. Most of the land belonged to members of the families of al-Sourani, al-Jadba and al-Shurafa.
1. Asmaa’ ‘Ali ‘Oukal, 32, the wife, hit by shrapnel throughout the body;
2. Shahd, 1; and
3. Maria, 5.
The other two children who were wounded are: Amani, 4; and Sumaya, 13.
Incursions into Palestinian Areas and Attacks on Palestinian Civilians and Property in the West Bank
Thursday, 20 July 2006
Friday, 21 July 2006
1. Ahmed Nabeel Qudaimat, 20;
2. Jihad ‘Ali Muhareb, 23; and
3. ‘Abdul Ghaffar Qudaimat, 24.
1. Mahmoud Mohammed Isma’il, 23; and
2. Khaled Musallam Farrash, 16.
Soon after, a number of Palestinian civilians gathered and threw stones at IOF vehicles besieging the governmental compound. Immediately, IOF fired at these civilians, wounding 21, including 7 children.
Sunday, 23 July 2006
1. Fadi Za’al Humaid, 19;
2. Joma’a Ameen Sabbah, 18; and
3. Fares ‘Ata Jabrin, 26.
Monday, 24 July 2006
1. Sufian Mohammed al-Tarada, 22; and
2. Rezeq Nayef Khamaisa, 21.
Tuesday, 25 July 2006
1. Mohammed ‘Abdul ‘Aziz al-Ashqar, 18;
2. Majdi Jawad al-Shaka’a, 32;
3. Rami ‘Azzam Yssin, 18; and
4. Ahmed Mohammed Mansour, 18.
1. Ayman Fu’ad Ghannam, 22; and
2. Mahmoud Yousef Zindiq, 18.
1. Ahmed ‘Abdul Karim Ghannam, 17;
2. Nasser ‘Abdul Karim Ghannam, 18;
3. Riad ‘Abdul Karim Ghannam, 20;
4. Sameer ‘Abdul Karim Ghannam, 22;
5. Ibrahim ‘Abdul Karim Ghannam, 27;
6. Islam Nemer Ghannam, 17; and
7. ‘Emad Ahmed Jadallah, 18.
Wednesday, 26 July 2006
1. Ussama Mohammed al-Jamal, 20;
2. Isma’il Mohammed Abu ‘Eisha, 19; and
3. Bader Lafi Ghaith, 20.
1. Bassam Nemer al-Haj, 45;
2. Mohammed ‘Abdullah Hanani, 18;
3. Tariq ‘Abdullah Hanani, 17; and
4. Najeh Sabti Khatatba, 55.
Continued Siege on the OPT
IOF have continued to impose a tightened siege on the OPT and imposed severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including Occupied East Jerusalem.
Following an attack launched by Palestinian militants on 25 June 2006 near the Israeli-Egyptian border, southeast of Rafah, which left two IOF soldiers and two of the attackers dead and a third IOF soldier missing, IOF have closed all border crossings of the Gaza Strip:
The closure of border crossings deprives the Palestinian civilian population in the Gaza Strip of their right to freedom of movement, education and health.
IOF have continued to impose severe restrictions on fishing in the Gaza Strip. Following the attack on IOF on 25 June 2006, IOF prevented fishing. Approximately 35,000 people in and around Gaza’s coastal communities rely on the fishing industry, including 2,500 fishermen, 2,500 support staff and their families. Fishermen have been subjected to intensive monitoring by IOF, which use helicopter gunships and gunboats to monitor the fishermen. On a number of occasions, IOF has opened fire against the civilian fishermen in order to enforce the 9 nautical mile limit imposed on them. The Oslo Accords make provision for Gaza’s sea to be fished to 20 nautical miles.
The West Bank
IOF have tightened the siege imposed on the West Bank since 20 July 2006. They have cancelled all permits offered to Palestinians to enter Jerusalem. They have continued to impose severe restrictions on the movement of Palestinian civilians and imposed curfews on a number of Palestinian communities.
At approximately 12:00 on Sunday, 23 July 2006, IOF positioned at Bala’a checkpoint, east of Tulkarm, violently beat Ma’awia Hassan Mousa, 35. He sustained bruises throughout the body. IOF soldiers chased Mousa and held him under the sun as he and other young men attempted to resort to alternative dirt roads to avoid prolonged checking by IOF.
On Sunday morning, 23 July 2006, IOF positioned at “Etzion” checkpoint, north of Hebron, arrested Isma’il ‘Ali Sabbah, 25, from Bethlehem, a member of the Palestinian National Security Forces.
Construction of the Annexation Wall
IOF have continued to construct the Annexation Wall inside West Bank territory.
Settlement Activities and Attacks by Settlers against Palestinian Civilians and Property
Israeli settlers (living in the OPT in violation of international humanitarian law) have continued their attacks against Palestinian civilians and property:
Recommendations to the International Community
1. PCHR calls upon the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention to fulfill their legal and moral obligations under Article 1 of the Convention to ensure Israel’s respect for the Convention in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. PCHR believes that the conspiracy of silence practiced by the international community has encouraged Israel to act as if it is above the law and encourages Israel continue to violate international human rights and humanitarian law.
2. PCHR calls upon the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention to convene a conference to take effective steps to ensure Israel’s respect of the Convention in the OPT and to provide immediate protection for Palestinian civilians.
3. PCHR calls upon the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention to comply with its legal obligations detailed in Article 146 of the Convention to search for and prosecute those responsible for grave breaches, namely war crimes.
4. PCHR recommends international civil society organizations, including human rights organizations, bar associations and NGOs to participate in the process of exposing those accused of grave breaches of international law and to urge their governments to bring these people to justice.
5. PCHR calls upon the European Union to activate Article 2 of the Euro-Israel Association Agreement, which provides that Israel must respect human rights as a precondition for economic cooperation between the EU states and Israel. PCHR further calls upon the EU states to prohibit import of goods produced in illegal Israeli settlements in the OPT.
6. PCHR calls upon the member States of the EU, and all other states, to adopt a voting pattern at the UN bodies, particularly the General Assembly, Security Council and Commission on Human Rights which is in keeping with international law.
7. PCHR demands that the International Court of Justice Advisory Opinion be immediately implemented by the international community.
8. PCHR calls on the international community to recognize the Gaza disengagement plan, which was implemented last year, for what it is - not an end to occupation but a compounding of the occupation and the humanitarian crisis in the Gaza Strip.
9. In recognition of ICRC as the guardian of the Fourth Geneva Convention, PCHR calls upon the ICRC to increase its staff and activities in the OPT, including the facilitation of family visitations to Palestinian prisoners in Israeli jails.
10. PCHR appreciates the efforts of international civil society, including human rights organizations, bar associations, unions and NGOs, and urges them to continue their role in pressuring their governments to secure Israel’s respect for human rights in the OPT and to end its attacks on Palestinian civilians.
11. In light of the severe restrictions imposed by the Israeli government and its occupying forces on access for international organizations to the OPT, PCHR calls upon European countries to deal with Israeli citizens in a similar manner.
12. PCHR reiterates that any political settlement not based on international human rights law and humanitarian law cannot lead to a peaceful and just solution of the Palestinian question. Rather, such an arrangement can only lead to further suffering and instability in the region. Any peace agreement or process must be based on respect for international law, including international human rights and humanitarian law.
The Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR) is an independent legal body based in Gaza City dedicated to protecting human rights, promoting the rule of law and upholding democratic principles in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. It holds Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations and is an affiliate of the International Commission of Jurists, the Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l’Homme (FIDH), and the Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network. PCHR is a recipient of the 1996 French Republic Award for Human Rights.